A Multiscale and Comparative Model for Receptor Binding of 2019 Novel Coronavirus and the Implication of its Life Cycle in Host Cells
Yinghao Wu, Zhaoqian Su
Received date: 28th February 2020
The respiratory syndrome caused by a new type of coronavirus has been emerging from China and caused more than 1000 death globally since December 2019. This new virus, called 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) uses the same receptor called Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to attack humans as the coronavirus that caused the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) seventeen years ago. Both viruses recognize ACE2 through the spike proteins (S-protein) on their surfaces. It was found that the S-protein from the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) bind stronger to ACE2 than 2019-nCoV. However, function of a bio-system is often under kinetic, rather than thermodynamic, control. To address this issue, we constructed a structural model for complex formed between ACE2 and the S-protein from 2019-nCoV, so that the rate of their association can be estimated and compared with the binding of S-protein from SARS-CoV by a multiscale simulation method. Our simulation results suggest that the association of new virus to the receptor is slower than SARS, which is consistent with the experimental data obtained very recently. We further integrated this difference of association rate between virus and receptor into a mathematical model which describes the life cycle of virus in host cells and its interplay with the innate immune system. Interestingly, we found that the slower association between virus and receptor can result in longer incubation period, while still maintaining a relatively higher level of viral concentration in human body. Our computational study therefore provides, from the molecular level, one possible explanation that the new disease by far spread much faster than SARS.
This is an abstract of a preprint hosted on a preprint server, which is currently undergoing peer review at Scientific Reports. The findings have yet to be thoroughly evaluated, nor has a decision on ultimate publication been made. Therefore, the results reported should not be considered conclusive, and these findings should not be used to inform clinical practice, or public health policy, or be promoted as verified information.