Classification and Specific Primer Design for Accurate Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Using Deep Learning
Alejandro Lopez-Rincon, Alberto Tonda, Lucero Mendoza-Maldonado, Daphne G.J.C. Mulders, Richard Molenkamp, Carmina A. Perez-Romero, Eric Claassen, Johan Garssen, Aletta D. Kraneveld
Received date: 17th November 2020
In this paper, deep learning is coupled with explainable artificial intelligence techniques for the discovery of representative genomic sequences in SARS-CoV-2.
A convolutional neural network classifier is first trained on 553 sequences from the National Genomics Data Center (NGDC) repository, separating the genome of different virus strains from the Coronavirus family with 98.73% accuracy. The network's behavior is then analyzed, to discover sequences used by the model to identify SARS-CoV-2, ultimately uncovering sequences exclusive to it.
The discovered sequences are validated on samples from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) repositories, and proven able to separate SARS-CoV-2 from different virus strains with near-perfect accuracy. Next, one of the sequences is selected to generate a primer set, and tested against other state-of-the-art primer sets, obtaining competitive results. Finally, the primer is synthesized and tested on patient samples (n=6 previously tested positive), delivering a sensibility similar to routine diagnostic methods, and 100% specificity.
The proposed methodology has a substantial added value over existing methods, as it is able to both automatically identify promising primer sets for a virus from a limited amount of data, and deliver effective results in a minimal amount of time. Considering the possibility of future pandemics, these characteristics are invaluable to promptly create specific detection methods for diagnostics.
This is an abstract of a preprint hosted on a preprint server, which is currently undergoing peer review at Scientific Reports. The findings have yet to be thoroughly evaluated, nor has a decision on ultimate publication been made. Therefore, the results reported should not be considered conclusive, and these findings should not be used to inform clinical practice, or public health policy, or be promoted as verified information.