SARS-CoV-2 inhibition in human airway epithelial cells using a mucoadhesive, amphiphilic chitosan that may serve as an anti-viral nasal spray
Krzysztof Pyrć, Aleksandra Milewska, Emilia Barreto Duran, Paweł Botwina, Rui Lopes, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Moutaz Badr, Ryan Mellor, Tammy L. Kalber, Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes, Andreas G. Schätzlein, Ijeoma F. Uchegbu
Received date: 16th December 2020
There are currently no cures for coronavirus infections, making the prevention of infections the only course open at the present time. The COVID-19 pandemic has been difficult to prevent, as the infection is spread by respiratory droplets and thus effective, scalable and safe preventive interventions are urgently needed. We hypothesise that preventing viral entry into mammalian nasal epithelial cells may be one way to limit the spread of COVID-19. Here we show that N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan (GCPQ), a positively charged polymer that has been through an extensive Good Laboratory Practice toxicology screen, is able to reduce the infectivity of SARS-COV-2 in A549ACE2+ and Vero E6 cells with a log removal value of -3 to -4 at a concentration of 10 – 100 g/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls) and to limit infectivity in human airway epithelial cells at a concentration of 500 g/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls). GCPQ is currently being developed as a pharmaceutical excipient in nasal and ocular formulations. GCPQ’s electrostatic binding to the virus, preventing viral entry into the host cells, is the most likely mechanism of viral inhibition. Radiolabelled GCPQ studies in mice show that at a dose of 10 mg/ kg, GCPQ has a long residence time in mouse nares, with 13.5% of the dose being present in the nares, 24 hours after nasal dosing. With a no observed adverse effect level of 18 mg/ kg in rats following a 28-day repeat dose study, clinical testing of this polymer, as a COVID-19 prophylactic is warranted.
This is an abstract of a preprint hosted on a preprint server, which is currently undergoing peer review at Scientific Reports. The findings have yet to be thoroughly evaluated, nor has a decision on ultimate publication been made. Therefore, the results reported should not be considered conclusive, and these findings should not be used to inform clinical practice, or public health policy, or be promoted as verified information.